Training of sportsmen

This is the first in our country the Handbook for training of sportsmen-orienters, it details disclosed methods of endurance training in running on rough terrain, the means of technical and tactical training, analyzed typical mistakes made by athletes at distances of competitions, and recommended ways to address them. The reader acquainted with the issues of recovery after training and competition, balanced diet.

Long the category sportsmen (especially self-help) and coaches in orienteering, as well as the contestants on “related” with

orienteering sports (“Fox hunting”, police and radioresource), hikers, skiers, athletes, athletes, those who pass the standards of the TRP.

In our country orienteering received official recognition from 1963 when, under the Uzhgorod hosted the first all-Union competition. In the 15 yearsthat have passed since that time, the number of Amateur runners with a compass and map reached about a million people.

For beginners orientirovka already published a number of books, which are set out in the initial receptions of technics of possession of a compass and a map, search for control points, some recommendations on physical training. This book is for the category sportsmen and reveals the main basis of preparation the cross with orientation. Specifics of ski-orienteering is not considered here.

When working on a book on the experiences of training and competing in competitions leading foreign (mostly Scandinavian) and Soviet orienteers, as well as athletes-runners on middle and long distances. Comprehensively analyzed the results of numerous all-Union and international competitions, including the last world Championships.

Due to the nature of the development of orienteering most orienteers practicing independently. We therefore found it necessary to thoroughly acquaint the reader with the planning of training, nutrition, recovery after training and competition. In our view, these issues will be mistakes. Elaborated methods of endurance training because of the long and complex nature of mastoidectomy orienteering subject to a high level of the body.

Observation of experienced Swedish orienteers showed that on the course their body is worked over one and a half hours 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption. With telemetry, it was found that the pulse at the start of one of the athletes was 110 beats/min, after the first 20 seconds. running the race he has risen to 160 and then fluctuated slightly in moments of searching, the markers, leaving checkpoints, as well as when running on different ground (in the woods, arable lands, roads, paths). When reading the cards, the heart rate decreased to 140 beats/min, and at the finish was reached 175 beats/min. Thus, the running qualified orientirovka – distance running with micropause. This determines the main thrust of training in orienteering. Of great importance to purchase and hold a high level of sport are factors such as health, nutrition, normal rhythm of life, the ability to relax.

Considering the problems of technical and tactical training, we proceeded from the fact that orienteering is a sport in which you have to solve a lot of various tasks, with the same “reply” on them can be obtained in various ways. We wanted to focus athletes on the mastery of individual methods and methods of distance. Matter orientirovka on the way to the top never stop in improving techniques and tactics of orientation. We recognize that in urban settings, where the majority of sport-athlete-orienters, conduct cross-country training is somewhat easier than training in technical and tactical things you can do with a compass and a map. However, you cannot neglect these elements. They contain large reserves to enhance athletic level.

Orienteering is one of the few sports in which the competitors operate individually, coaches, referees, spectators, and even rivals. Therefore, to achieve the goal of high psychological preparation, manifestation of perseverance, determination, courage, self-control. It is established that under the influence of classroom orientation significantly develop the volume and switching attention, nagladnaya memory. However, the practical recommendations for the psychological preparation of sportsmen-orienters little. What is clear is that systematic work on the development of technical and tactical skills contributes to the development of cognitive mental processes and the growth of sports skill. In the acute struggle with equal force to the opponents inability to control your emotions and mood is often not possible to show good results on which the state of physical, technical and tactical training is focused athlete.

Chapter of the book devoted to sports orienteering training, nutrition, recovery tools, written by L. A. Kohenim, the rest of the Chapter together B. I. Ogorodnikov and A. N. Kircho.

Methods of sports training

For competitions on sports orientation characterized by long and difficult the terrain the distance. To successfully overcome them along with such physical qualities like speed and strength endurance, which is the determining factor of physical preparation of sportsmen-orienters. In our book we have focused on the development of this quality.

With the development of General and special endurance mode exercise can be divided into continuous and “discontinuous” (selectable). In the continuous mode is used, a uniform, variable, control and competitive methods of training in discrete – interval, and re-re-AC. Introduce briefly the content of each of these methods.

A uniform method is characterized by performing continuous work with melamineware intensity. Effective when training in many cyclic sports. Uniform method requires from the trainer and the athlete knowledge of the physiological and psychological basis of continuous run. Briefly recall them. At the same time let us define the terms with which the reader will meet in this book.

Oxygen consumption by the body during muscular work, lasting more than 5 min. increases in the first few minutes and further kept at a constant level. This state is called stable.

Maximum oxygen consumption (IPC) is characterized by the amount of oxygen that the body consumes for 1 min. with hard work, lasting for at least 3 min. For each person sushestvuet boundary, above which the oxygen consumption is not increased. The value of IPC depends on the weight and is expressed as the amount of oxygen in milliliters consumed per unit time divided by the unit weight of the person. When converted to 1 kg of body weight on BMD for not practicing sports is about 40 ml, in athletes of high qualification is 80-90 ml.

IPC is a measure of the body’s aerobic performance.

Aerobic capacity – the ability of a person to provide their energy costs by oxygen absorbed during operation. Score in running for long distance in ski racing is largely (60-80%) depends on the level of aerobic performance. And one of the main tasks of the training of an athlete – increase this level.

The level at which the IPC training and competition of athletes?

Swedish scientist P. Ostrand found that long can only run a program that requires oxygen request up to 50%. A well-trained athlete can work at the level of 90-95% of their IPC no more than 10-15 min. In daily practice, a good indicator of the intensity of the load is pulse rate. As an example, the indicators of heart rate and IPC for skiers (PL. 1).

Anaerobic capacity – the body’s ability to function in the conditions of lack of oxygen due to the anaerobic energy sources. Oxygen reacting with glucose in the blood, releases energy. The breakdown of glucose without oxygen, i.e. anaerobic, accompanied by the release of lactic acid and other metabolic products that accumulate in the body, forced him to stop work. The incoming oxygen helps to remove these products from the body. High anaerobic performance characteristic of sports with loads of submaximal power (running 400, 800 m, average distance). When training for long distance work performed under these conditions, does not exceed 5-15% of the total volume depending on the stage of training and level of skill.

Table 1. Oxygen consumption and heart rate in cross-country skiers.

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